What functionality must be designed into each of the hierarchical layers? Client authentication (802.1x) is supported in a switched environment but tends to be an add-on technology to a previously existing mature environment and can prove to have a more complicated deployment than in an equivalent wireless environment. There are two key motivators that have been driving the network convergence process. In this example, the backbone could be deployed with Catalyst 3560E switches, and the access layer and data center could utilize the Catalyst 2960G switches with limited future scalability and limited high availability. While a redundant network topology, featuring redundant links and switches, can help address many overall campus availability challenges, providing redundancy alone does not comprise a complete solution. The successful design and implementation of an enterprise campus network requires an understanding of how each applies to the overall design and how each principle fits in the context of the others. The enterprise campus architecture can be applied at the campus scale, or at the building scale, to allow flexibility in network design and facilitate ease of implementation and troubleshooting. As an example, in a multi-building campus design like that shown in Figure 3, having a separate core layer allows for design solutions for cabling or other external constraints to be developed without compromising the design of the individual distribution blocks. All traffic in excess of this rate is dropped, which provides a safety mechanism to protect against one application masquerading as another more mission critical one (by using the more important application's port numbers for communication). Every campus design will have single points of failure and the overall availability of the network might be dependent on the availability of a single device. By implementing an explicit rule that enforces that expected behavior, the network design achieves a higher degree of overall resiliency by preventing all of the potential problems that could happen if thousands of MAC addresses suddenly appeared on an edge port. The routed access distribution block design has a number of advantages over the multi-tier design with its use of Layer-2 access to distribution uplinks. Table 4 Comparison of Wired vs. Wireless Support of Application Requirements, Switched Ethernet provides for inherent layer 1 fault isolation and when complimented by capabilities in the current Catalyst switches provides for layer 2 fault isolation and DoS protection. Just as importantly, the ability to provide business efficiencies by being able to seamlessly move a device between wired and wireless environments and to provide for collaboration and common services between devices independent of underlying physical access connectivity type is a key requirement for this next phase of converged design. As outlined in this document, any successful architecture must be based on a foundation of solid design theory and principles. Currently the best practice is still recommended to deploy a traditional trust boundary model complemented by DPI. Because there is no upper bound to the size of a large campus, the design might incorporate many scaling technologies throughout the enterprise. The core provides a high level of redundancy and can adapt to changes quickly. Combining tools within the switching fabric with external monitoring and prevention capabilities will be necessary to address the overall problem. Figure 11 illustrates an extreme case in which an end-to-end, Layer-2 topology is being migrated from a fully redundant spanning tree-based topology to an end-to-end virtual switch-based network. The campus security architecture should be extended to include the client itself. Figure 1-17 illustrates a sample large campus network scaled for size in this publication. •Leverage the hardware CPU protection mechanisms and Control Plane Protection (CoPP) features of the Catalyst switches to limit and prioritize traffic forwarded to each switch CPU. All three of these telemetry mechanisms must be supported by the appropriate backend monitoring systems. However, these are now configured on the VLAN Switched Virtual Interface (SVI) defined on the access switch, instead of on the distribution switches. These diagnostics can aid in troubleshooting suspected hardware problems and provide the ability to proactively test new hardware before production cutovers. A structured system is based on two complementary principles: hierarchy and modularity. Simpler overall network configuration and operation, per flow upstream and downstream load balancing, and faster convergence are some of the differences between these newer design options and the traditional multi-tier approach. The challenge for the campus architect is determining how to implement a design that meets this wide variety of requirements, the need for various levels of mobility, the need for a cost-effective and flexible operations environment, while being able to provide the appropriate balance of security and availability expected in more traditional, fixed-configuration environments. Nexus 9000 Series; Nexus 3550 Series (new) MDS 9000; Small business Enjoy features and affordability for growing businesses. In addition to defining when applications will fail, they also define what is disruptive to the employees and users of the network, what events will disrupt their ability to conduct business, and what events signify a failure of the network. The time to restore service, data flows, in the network is based on the time it takes for the failed device to be replaced or for the network to recover data flows via a redundant path. Another is the movement from a design with subnets contained within a single access switch to the routed-access design. In the software development world, these sorts of system growth and complexity problems lead to the development of structured programming design using modularized or subroutine-based systems. When applied to a building, the Cisco Campus Architecture naturally divides networks into the building access, building distribution, and building core layers, as follows: By enhancing the baseline campus QoS design to include mechanisms such as a scavenger queue combined with DPI and edge policing, it is also able to provide for a degree of protection for all of the remaining best effort applications. Resiliency: The network must remain available for use under both normal and abnormal conditions. The campus typically connects to a •Forwarding Plane Flexibility—The ability to support the introduction and use of IPv6 as a parallel requirement along side IPv4. The ability to predict the location of congestion points becomes more difficult as data flow patterns are able to migrate while dynamic peer-to-peer sessions come and go from the network. The virtual switch design allows for a number of fundamental changes to be made to the configuration and operation of the distribution block. Similarly, any switch configuration must be done only once and is synchronized across the redundant supervisors. The distribution layer represents a redistribution point between routing domains or the demarcation between static and dynamic routing protocols. Cisco’s Borderless Campus 1.0 Architecture establishes a framework that securely, reliably and seamlessly. Highlighted. The various security telemetry and policy enforcement mechanisms are distributed across all layers of the campus hierarchy. PVST+, Rapid PVST+, EIGRP, OSPF, DTP, PAgP/LACP, UDLD, FlexLink, Portfast, UplinkFast, BackboneFast, LoopGuard, BPDUGuard, Port Security, RootGuard. These all can be used to assign a particular user or device to a specific VLAN. Note that in Figure 4, the bottom design is recommended, not the top. Evolutionary changes are occurring within the campus architecture. The ability to fill lost phonetic information in a conversation and the threshold for what period of time constitutes a pause in speech—signalling it is someone else's turn to talk—are much longer than what the human ear can detect as lost sound. DPM is useful in that it is a measure of the observed availability and considers the impact to the end user as well as the network itself. With the introduction of the virtual switch concept, the distribution switch pair can now be configured to run as a single logical switch as shown in Figure 9. Availability, fast path recovery, load balancing, and QoS are the important considerations at the distribution layer. The key principle of the hierarchical design is that each element in the hierarchy has a specific set of functions and services that it offers and a specific role to play in each of the design. In the later sections of this document, an overview of each of these services and a description of how they interoperate in a campus network is discussed. The presence of the trust boundary in the campus QoS design provides the foundation for the overall architecture. A small campus network or large branch network is defined as a network of fewer than 200 end devices, whereas the network servers and workstations might be physically connected to the same wiring closet. The removal of loops in the topology provides a number of benefits—including per device uplink load balancing with the use of GLBP, a reduced dependence on spanning tree to provide for network recovery, reduction in the risk of broadcast storms, and the ability to avoid unicast flooding (and similar design challenges associated with non-symmetrical Layer-2 and Layer-3 forwarding topologies). As a part of the process of developing the overall converged wired and wireless access architecture, it is important to understand that the drive to provide enhanced mobility must be balanced with the need to support mission critical applications. See the "Security Services" section for more information. Enabling port security on the access switch allows it to restrict which frames are permitted inbound from the client on an access port based on the source MAC address in the frame. •The growth in peer-to-peer traffic and the overloading of well-known ports with multiple application and traffic types have added another set of challenges. A default gateway protocol—such as HSRP or GLBP—is run on the distribution layer switches along with a routing protocol to provide upstream routing to the core of the campus. Client authentication protocols are integrated into WLAN standards and incorporated into the existing end station clients. 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